On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, authorizing the Secretary of War to prescribe military areas within the United States for "protection against espionage and against sabotage." This order led to the forcible removal and incarceration of more than 110,000 men, women, and children of Japanese ancestry, none of whom were ever found guilty of espionage or sabotage. The Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, an investigative measure created under Jimmy Carter, concluded in 1982 that the incarceration came of "race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership," and in 1990, survivors of the incarceration camps began to receive redress payments and letters of apology from the United States government. More information about the history of Japanese Americans and the process and legacy of their incarceration can be found here.
Through the month of February, get 15% off books in our Nikkei in the Americas series, as well as Japanese American Resettlement through the Lens: Hikaru Carl Iwasaki and the WRA's Photographic Section, 1943-1945 and The Great Unknown: Japanese American Sketches by using code EO906675 at check-out.