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Ecological and General Systems

An Introduction to Systems Ecology

Revised Edition

by Howard T. Odum

Paperback Price $66.00

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Using an energy systems language that combines energetics, kinetics, information, cybernetics, and simulation, Ecological and General Systems compares models of many fields of science, helping to derive general systems principles.

First published as Systems Ecology in 1983, Ecological and General Systems proposes principles of self-organization and the designs that prevail by maximizing power and efficiency. Comparisons to fifty other systems languages are provided. Innovative presentations are given on earth homeostasis (Gaia); the inadequacy of presenting equations without network relationships and energy constraints; the alternative interpretation of high entropy complexity as adaptive structure; basic equations of ecological economics; and the energy basis of scientific hierarchy.

Part I introduces energetics, hierarchy, and systems modeling. Part II features design elements: intersections, autocatalytic modules, loops, series, parallel elements, and webs. Part III includes embodied energy, spectra of energy quality, temperature, complexity, spatial distribution, and diversity. Part IV discusses production, consumption, ecosystems, succession, economic systems, anthropological models, urban and regional models, global biogeochemistry, and the universe.


Howard T. Odum was internationally renowned for his development of the science of systems ecology and as a pioneering voice in environmental science, ecology, and ecological engineering and economics.

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  • Paperback Price: $66.00
  • Paperback ISBN: 978-0-87081-320-7
  • Publication Year: 1994
  • Pages: 644
  • Discount Type: Short
  • Author: by Howard T. Odum
  • ECommerce Code: 978-0-87081-320-7
  • Get Permissions: Get Permission

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